Friday, November 25, 2016

Aplastic anemia

In aplastic anemia, there occurs a failure of hematopoiesis; the bone marrow appears empty, and the blood cells count falls to a great degree. Aplastic anemia is generally categorized as severe or mild. Aplastic anemia can be acquired, inherited or congenital.

In the mild form of aplastic anemia, the blood cells are less drastically reduced in number. Sometimes, a deficiency of some type of blood cell precedes the full-blown development of aplastic anemia.

In severe cases a patient may suffer from heavy or prolonged bleeding, frequently or severe infections and severe anemia.

The mechanism working behind aplastic anemia is regarded as being immune mediated, in which there is active destruction of stem cells by lymphocytes. Because of this destruction, a reduction in all blood cells types occurs; this reduction is called pancytopenia.

The major causes for acquired aplastic anemia include exposure to radiation, drugs and other chemicals, viruses, immune diseases and other disease processes.

Genetic syndromes associated with aplastic anemia include Fanconi’s anemia, Familiar aplastic anemia, Schwachman-Diamond syndrome and other nonhematologic syndromes.
Aplastic anemia
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