Friday, June 16, 2017

Infectious disease of leprosy

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium leprae that hide in the coolest areas of the body. The Mycobacterium leprae bacillus, also known as Hansen’s bacillus, ranges from 2 to 7 micrometers (1 micrometer = 1/1000 of a millimeter) in length and 0.3 to 0.4 micrometers in width.

Leprosy can strike at any age most often afflicts those between ten and twenty years of age. Untreated leprosy can lead to severe complications, including blindness and disfigurement, but leprosy can be cured with proper medication.

The simplest form of leprosy, the indeterminate type, primarily affects the skin, causing swollen, reddish patches while the body’s immune system tries to fight off the disease.
Leprosy can affect the nerves that control the sweat glands and the sebaceous, glands, which are the glands that keep skin moist. This can cause hair loss, especially loss of eyebrows. Drying skin cracks, causing open sores that can become infected.

The disease causes a lightening (or darkening) of the skin, with a loss of feeling and sweating. Some types of the disease produce a rash of bumps or nodules on the skin.

Patient can no longer sense pain, the body looses the automatic withdrawal reflex that protects against trauma from sharp or hot objects, leading to extensive scarring or even loss of fingers and toes.
Infectious disease of leprosy
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